Mudéjar means the pervivencia of the Muslim art in the Christian Spain of the Average and Modern, logical Age after the presence of the Islam during so many centuries. The advance of Reconquista went incorporating to Christian territories Islamic communities. Mudéjares, Muslims submissive the Christian dominion, will maintain their religion contributing their artistic way of life and its elements, working like constructors, master builders, carpenters, decoradores in plaster, according to their artisan traditions. This fact receives importance from reconquers it of Toledo (1085), where that situation of religious tolerance occurs characteristic of the Hispanic medieval society, coexisting Christian, Jewish and Muslim. Finished he reconquers it (1492), the Jews are expelled and mudéjares forced to choose between this or the conversion to the Christianity. From 1502 in Castile and 1526 in Aragón, mudéjares turned receives the new name of moriscos or Christians, to their definitive expulsion in 1610.
The term " to mudéjar " like artistic manifestation, cannot be defined only as " art done by mudéjares ", since they made it and they accepted for his Christian and Jewish constructions also, being expression of that complex society.
Multiple factors conditioned the peculiar development of the art to mudéjar. Reconquista is incorporating dispersed centers mudéjares geographically and with different Muslim origins. Their continuous contact among them, with the western Christian art and the influences that receive from the Muslim art of zones nonreconquered, forms the artistic phenomenon.
Within the variety of mudéjar some aspects exist that predominate. The generalized use of the brick , of standardized although varied measures, is conditional the thickness of walls, pillars or arcs. The mampuesto is used ordered and reinforced by brick lines, and canteria in reinforcement of corners. Fundamental plaster like definidor decorativo atmosphere system, is used so much whitening an inner wall as in complex yeserías. In the covering of interiors the master builders use the decorated wood ceiling , in which they are masterful unquestionable. With respect to the ornamental with little interest by the figurative thing, to geometric forms of loop and vegetables of ataurique inherited of the Muslim are developed, adding Christian elements.
Compléto throughout century XII reconquers Aragonese, Zaragoza (1118), Daroca and Calatayud (1120), arriving until Teruel (1171). From then, outside the reconquistador process and of the contact with the islamizado south, the development of the art to mudéjar acquires own personality and autonomy. The palace taifa of the Aljaferia is going to become fundamental center of influences (1046-1082) and on the other hand in him they are going away to center the main accomplishments mudéjares of the kings, when becoming its official residence.
In Aragón the greater contructiva density to mudéjar appears in level territories of the Ebro and its southern affluents, the Tug and the Jiloca, not only by the permanence of the population to mudéjar, but by other conditioners like geographic, the stone shortage in the valley of the Ebro, the identification of the romanico with the way of life of the inhabitants of Pyrenean, the etc., who will be determining factors so that the art arises to mudéjar in Aragón. The generalized acceptance of the art to mudéjar on the part of the Aragonese society is pronounced in its pervivencia until century XVII, even in the baroque art, after the expulsion of the moriscos (1610).
Indeed, it will be the axis of the Ebro, as well as the shores of his affluents of the right margin, the space in which it will be developed splendidly. The located ones outside the this zone, most significant are isolated cases of all of them is turolense to mudéjar . Today declared by UNESCO cultural patrimony of the humanity.
Of century XII they are the conserved monuments mudéjares of early time: tower of Santo Domingo and apse of San Juan in Daroca, the church of Santa Maria (present cathedral) and the tower of San Pedro de Teruel.
The time of greater splendor of mudéjar agrees with the period of greater height of the gothic one: end of century XIII and principles of century XIV. Of this time are the churches of San Pablo, the Magdalena, San Gil and San Miguel of the Navarrese in capital Zaragoza. What traditionally it has been known better the art to mudéjar Aragonese are his splendid tower-bell tower, retort of alminares Muslim. Of square plant, like San Martín and El Salvador in Teruel and the Magdalena in Zaragoza; with octogonal plant those of San Pablo in Zaragoza and Tauste were constructed.
In the borders of the Queiles (Tarazona) they emphasize claustro of the Canonesas, his cathedral and the Magdalena. The colegiatas of Borja and Calatayud are good samples of this brick art, also used in claustro of Santo Sepulcro and Santa Maria of this last city. The turolense capital - true museum mudéjar- counts, in addition to with its beautiful towers, the rich one adorned with caissons of the Cathedral.
Other important caissoned ceilings of this style are those of badly called house of D. Juan of Austria in Daroca and the one of the Virgin of the Source in Penarroya de Tastavins.
If you want Ample your information on Aragon you can begin crossing some Monasteries, o 40 Castles another interesting route is the Mudejar, Patrimony of the Humanity, also you can extend your cultural knowledge on Aragón examining its municipal and institutional heraldy without forgetting, of course, some of its emblematicas figures as San George Pattern of Aragon or its personages I illustrate adding to these data a minimum crossed by its history o some books.
The information will not be complete without a stroll by its three provinces: Zaragoza, Teruel and Huesca and ours varied Regions, with shutdown in some of its spectacular landscapes like Ordesa or the Moncayo or by opposition in the valle of the Ebro.
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Aragon is like that. Mudejar Art in Aragón. Introduction., Teruel. Provinces of Huesca, Teruel, Zaragoza, Aragon, mudejar, Romanico, English, Nature, maps, Asociacion Cultural Aragon Interactivo Multimedia. Spain. Aragon es asi.
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